ThreePhase Calculator
The threephase calculator is a handy tool whenever you need to investigate the threephase connections, including star and delta type connections. It uses the apparent, active, and reactive powers formulae to solve the problems. Read the following article to learn what threephase power is and how to use the 3phase power calculator. Finally, you can also check the threephase power formulae we're using.
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What is threephase power?
If you've ever looked at the power lines running to your home or business, you may have noticed that there are usually three wires instead of just one. This is because most power plants generate electricity using threephase power. Threephase power is a type of alternating current (AC) electricity where the voltage waves occur at three different times. This provides a more consistent flow of power than singlephase power, which is often used in small businesses and homes.
While threephase power is more efficient, it can also be more expensive to install and maintain. As a result, it's typically only used in applications where high levels of power are required, such as factories and electric trains.
Threephase power formula
The threephase power formula is a mathematical way to calculate the amount of power being used in a threephase system. This formula takes into account the three different voltages that are present in a threephase system, as well as the resistance of the load.
To use the threephase power formula, you'll need to know the voltage of each phase, and the current flowing through the system. Alternatively, you can use the linetoline voltage and line current. Once you have this information, you can plug it into one of the 3phase power formulae in the below sections:
 Apparent power formula
 Reactive power formula
 Active power formula
Apparent power formula
The first equation of a threephase system we'll look at is the apparent power formula. It has the following form:
where:

$S$  The apparent power in VA (voltamperes); check our kVA calculator to learn more about this unit;

$V_{\text{Ph}}$  The phase voltage in V (volts); and

$I_{\text{Ph}}$  The phase current in A (amperes).
As you can see in the threephase calculator, you can also input the linetoline quantities. In that case, the new apparent power formula is the following:
where:

$V_{\text{line}}$  The linetoline voltage in V; and

$I_{\text{line}}$  The linetoline current in A.
Before we go further, let's discuss the two types of connections (see the picture below) that we have in our threephase power calculator:
 Star  The 3phase wires are connected to the common point together with neutral; and
 Delta  The 3phase wires in the shape of delta Greek letter $\Delta$ with no neutral.
The connection type determines the relationship between phase and linetoline voltage and current:
 equal currents for star connection and $V_{\text{line}} = \sqrt{3} \cdot V_{\text{Ph}}$; and
 equal voltages for delta connection and $I_{\text{line}} = \sqrt{3} \cdot I_{\text{Ph}}$.
Reactive power formula
The second threephase power equation is the reactive power formula. As you probably know, not all of the apparent power is converted into work or heat. Some of it is stored in the capacitors and inductors, which we call reactive power. The reactive power formula has the following form:
where:
 $Q$  The reactive power in var (voltamperes reactive);
 $\varphi$  The phase angle in electrical degrees; and
everything else is the same as in the apparent power formula. You can also use the line values, in which case the threephase reactive power formula is as follows:
Active power formula
The last threephase equation we'll discuss is the active power formula. The active power is the amount of power that's actually used to do work:

$P$  The active power in W (watts); and

$\text{PF}$  The power factor, i.e., the ratio of real power to the apparent power (varies between 1 and 1).
As before, you can also use the line values to calculate the threephase active power. In that case, the threephase watts formula is as follows:
How to use our threephase calculator
Now that you know the threephase power equations and what 3phase power is, let's see how to use our 3phase current calculator:
 First, select the type of connection (star or delta).
 Then, input the values for voltage, current, and phase or power factor.
 The threephase power calculator will automatically calculate the apparent power, reactive power, and active power.
3phase conversion
If you're working with a threephase system, you may need to convert the power from watts to kilowatts. This can be done by simply dividing the power in watts by 1,000.
For example, if the threephase power is 10,000 watts, the threephase power in kilowatts would be 10 kilowatts. Our 3phase calculator has a builtin unit switcher, making the 3phase conversion very easy.