The history of the law of physics for light rays began as far back as 984 AD, and we're still using them to design optical devices. Lens, mirrors, telescopes, or binoculars follow the simple laws of reflection or refraction for light propagation but may sometimes cause problems in understanding them. If that's the case, our collection of optics calculators is the best choice as it covers everything you need to start with.

Angular Resolution CalculatorAperture Area CalculatorBeer-Lambert Law CalculatorBrewster's Angle CalculatorFocal Length CalculatorIndex of Refraction CalculatorLaser Pulse CalculatorSpot Size CalculatorLensmaker Equation CalculatorMalus Law CalculatorMirror Equation CalculatorSellmeier Equation CalculatorSnell's Law CalculatorThin-Film Optical Coating CalculatorThin Lens Equation Calculator