The molality of a solution is defined as the concentration in moles per kg of solvent. This is sometimes convenient because of the high accuracy with which it can be determined (as opposed to molarity).
Moles of solute
Mass of solvent
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The pKa of a substance is a logarithmic scale that relates its dissocation constant to give acid in aqueous solution. Low (i.e. negative) numbers relate to strong acids. Together with the total substance concentration it allows an approximate pH to be calculated.
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With our FRET efficiency calculator you learn how to calculate both the critical distance and the efficiency of this useful non-radiative process.