The absorption coefficient of a substance relates to the optical density it provides with the sample length and concentration. It is essentially a cross-section of interaction between a molecule and a photon and is sometimes expressed as such.
Molar absorption coefficient
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A lens can focus a Gaussian light beam to really small sizes: learn how with our beam spot size calculator.
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The power of a spherical lens can be estimated from the radius of curvature of its two faces and the refractive index difference between the lens and its medium.